Frequent Power surges and constant blackouts cause a lot of frustrations to households. They also cause significant losses to businesses. Luckily, there’s a branch of electrical engineering that addresses such concerns, ensuring such occurrences are less frequent.
The objective of such schemes is to ensure that power grids are protected from faults that result from disconnection of a faulty part. This ensures that the rest of the network remains operational. They are a set of pragmatic steps that result from anticipating future faults. Here are a few devices used in the following schemes.
Overload Protection and Backup
Such systems utilize current transformers to monitor the current flowing through a grid. They consist of TOC (time overcurrent) and Instantaneous overcurrent (IOC). IOC works by following a predetermined current level for circuit breakers. TOCs measure the current over a time curve. A circuit breaker disrupts the flow of electricity once the current exceeds the set parameters.
Ground Fault Protection
This system proactively senses any imbalances in 3 phase circuits. The circuit breaker operates once an imbalance is detected in one of the phases. Such a system protects sets of transformers from sustaining damages in case of any surges.
Impedance relays detect both voltage and current levels. This effectively keeps a balance between the ratios of both qualities in anticipation of impedance. This makes it easier for technicians to monitor electric currents and voltages over a long distance.
Backup systems work to eliminate/cut off only the affected portions of a sub-station or power plant. It’s the best contingency for when circuit breakers and relays fail to address electric surges. Effective backup systems also work to clear the fault and ensure that the power remains on as expediently as possible.
Low Voltage Networks
These networks rely on low voltage circuit breakers. They clear or curtail electric overloads and other faults within a small local area network.